For this, we have 2 features available, aside from Sharing the post to your Timeline.
First, is the Likes page. Every post you Like will get added to your Likes page.
Second way is using the Saved for Later page. Posts have a bookmark icon present to the right of the Share button. If you select it, that post will show up in your Saved for Later page.
Both of these pages can be accessed from your Profile Menu.